Researchers investigated and validated a method for the extraction and analysis of zolpidem and its metabolite, zolpidem 4-phenyl carboxylic acid (ZCA) from urine. Zolpidem (Ambien®) is the most widely prescribed insomnia treatment in the USA. Little is known about zolpidem metabolite excretion in chronic pain patients. Zolpidem is extensively metabolized in-vivo to zolpidem 4-phenyl carboxylic acid (ZCA). Analyzing patient samples for this metabolite may provide improved accuracy for compliance determinations, resulting in improved clinical decisions.
Zolpidem and ZCA were extracted from 1 mL human urine using UCT’s CLEAN SCREEN® DAU mixed-mode solid-phase extractions. Samples were analyzed by LC-MS-MS. Excellent sensitivity, linearity, and recoveries were obtained. Of note, during the study, ZCA was observed without parent zolpidem in 864 specimens. This increased the overall study population detection rate by 27.5%.
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